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送交者: Pascal 2018年04月16日23:05:33 于 [五 味 斋] 发送悄悄话



             China’s Communists Rewrite the Rules for Foreign Businesses

                                艾莎    2018年4月16日  《 纽约时报 》

                         DONGYUN LEE FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES

HONG KONG — One hammer and sickle at a time, the Communist Party is making its way deeper into everyday Chinese life — and that includes the foreign companies doing business there.


Honda, the Japanese automaker, changed its legal documents to give the party a say in how its Chinese factories are run. A Chinese state oil giant vowed to put the party front and center in its joint ventures with foreign partners.


And Cummins, the engine maker from Indiana, felt the party’s reach, too, when it tried to appoint a new manager for one of its China businesses. The party said no.


“In the past the American general manager did not understand why the party was involved in decision making,” said Hu Hongwei, the party’s representative to Cummins’s China joint venture, according to The People’s Daily, the party’s official newspaper.


But Cummins’s Chinese partner then rewrote the business’s articles of association to give the party more power, Ms. Hu said. The American manager “has begun to understand it,” she added.


The Communist Party’s rise in the Chinese offices and factories of foreign companies is yet another challenge for multinationals doing business in the country, which has the world’s second-largest economy, trailing only that of the United States. President Trump’s protectionism has put American companies in particular in the middle of a brewing fight between Beijing and Washington.


Foreign companies face growing pressure to share sensitive technology. The Chinese authorities have stepped up efforts to foster a new generation of homegrown competitors meant to someday replace foreign companies.



本田与中国汽车制造商东风公司的合资企业在武鉹u万内生产思域汽车。本田已修改其法律文件,让共产党在其中国工万的运营中发挥更多影响力。 AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE — GETTY IMAGES

Should a trade dispute between China and the United States worsen, Beijing could be moved to intensify the party’s role in foreign business even further, creating yet another headache for businesses operating in China.


The party’s expanding presence in business is part of a broader push by Xi Jinping, China’s president and the party’s top leader, to make it stronger. He has reshaped education to include more Communist Party mythology and increased the party’s role in China’s military. Mr. Xi’s take on Communism — called “Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era” — has been unveiled with great fanfare across the country.

共产党扩大在商业领域的存在,其背后是习近平及其他中共高级领导人为增L国力的 泛推动。习近平已对教育进行了调整,加入更多的共产党神话,也在中国的军队中加L了共产党的作用。习近平对共产主慦熔z解——所谓的“习近平新时代中国特色社会主Yi思想”——正在全国范围内声势浩大地宣扬。

In the business realm, dozens of Chinese state-controlled companies have changed their articles of incorporation to give the party a greater role, including the publicly traded units of some of the world’s biggest companies, like Sinopec, ICBC and China Railway Group. The insurance giant China Pacific Insurance, for example, recently amended its articles of association to say that in key corporate decisions, “the board of directors shall first seek for the opinion of the leading party group of the company.”


“We’ve never seen the party so forcefully articulate its own goals,” said Jude Blanchette, a senior adviser and China head at Crumpton Group. “Companies are now trying to coordinate with the party in a way that doesn’t sacrifice their own shareholder interest.”

“我们从没见过共产党如此L硬地阐明自己的目标,”克伦普顿集团(Crumpton Group)中国主管、资深顾问裘德·布兰切特(Jude Blanchette)说。“公司目前正试图在不牺牲股东利益的情G下与党协调工作。”

The Communist Party has long been part of doing business in China. While party committees are a fixture in many foreign-managed workplaces, they were seen by foreign executives for years as more like social clubs. They would meet to read party announcements, recruit new members, make sure dues were collected and generally keep an eye on operations.


But on at least three occasions in recent months, foreign executives have been approached by their Chinese joint venture partners demanding that they involve internal party committees in strategic decisions, say lawyers and business executives.


“Infiltration by party operatives into the executive circle of foreign-invested enterprises is not extensively apparent at this time but things are certainly going in that direction,” said James Zimmerman, a lawyer in Beijing whose clients include American multinational corporations.

“共产党人在外资企业管理层的渗透目前还不算明显,但情G肯定会朝Zhe这个方向发展,”在北京执业的律师吉莫曼(James Zimmerman)说,他的客户包括美国跨国企业。

He said several of his clients in joint ventures had received explicit requests to give their internal party organizations a greater say in the company’s operations. At some companies, the requested language requires a board of directors to consult with the committee before making business decisions.


Foreign business associations in China have spoken out. In November, the Delegation of German Industry and Commerce said it was concerned about “proactive calls on foreign-invested companies to promote the development of the Communist Party of China within companies.” The European Chamber of Commerce has called such incidents a “great concern” that would represent “a significant change from the legal framework under which joint ventures were negotiated and under which they have been operating successfully for decades.”

在华外国贸易协会对此表达了态度。11月,德国工商大会(Delegation of German Industry and Commerce)表示,对“主动呼吁外资企业提高中国共产党在企业内部的地位”感到恕腄C中国欧盟商会(European Union Chamber of Commerce in China)称之为“十分令人忧”的事件,可能代表Zhe“合资企业谈判所依靠的、已经借此成功经营了数十年的法律框架发生重大变化”。

The creeping influence of the party in foreign offices and factories is a sensitive subject in a country where the party seems ready to punish anyone who questions its widening influence. Many companies are loath to discuss the issue.


Cummins, for example, declined to comment on the changes to its joint venture’s articles of incorporation that gave the party greater power. Cummins had not “experienced any challenges or impact due to the structure we have in place and the role of the Chinese Communist Party,” a spokesman said.


Cummins’s Chinese partner, Dongfeng Motor Group, has recently taken steps to intensify the party’s activities at its other joint ventures, according to an article last year from Xinhua, China’s official news agency. They include ventures with Peugeot Citroën, the French automaker; Honda, of Japan; and Dana, the American auto parts maker.

中国官方通讯社新华社去年发表的一篇文章,康明斯的中国合作伙伴东风汽车公司前不久采取措施,加L它在其他合资企业内党的活动。这些企业包括与它法国汽车制造商标致雪铁龙(Peugeot Citroën)、日本的本田,以及美国汽车零部件制造商德纳(Dana)合作的公司。

Dongfeng’s other partners, like Peugeot and Dana, did not respond to repeated requests for comment. A Honda spokesman declined to comment about its partnership with Dongfeng.


However, the Honda spokesman confirmed that the party claimed a more assertive role in another joint venture with a different Chinese company, GAC Group.

然而,本田发言人证实,在本田与另一家中国公司 汽集团的合资企业中,中国共产党要求取得更L势的地位。

GAC, an automaker owned by Guangzhou Automobile Group, is pushing its joint ventures to change their articles of association to give the party a greater role, a spokeswoman said. In addition to Honda, it has joint ventures with Toyota and Mitsubishi, both of which declined to comment.

 汽集团是由 州汽车集团拥有的汽车制造商,一位本田发言人称,目前 汽正在推动其合资企业改动公司章程,令党发挥更大的作用。除本田之外, 汽还与丰田(Toyota)和三菱(Mitsubishi)建立了合资公司,两家企业都拒绝置评。

In November, at the most important Communist Party meeting, which takes place every five years, Mr. Xi called on officials to strengthen the party in “government, the military, society and schools, north, south, east and west.” The message was quick to reach party members lower down in the ranks.


Soon after Mr. Xi’s speech, party officials in the central province of Hunan issued a notice to members instructing them to write the party into legal documents for private and state-owned companies alike. The document was accidentally made public when a local state-owned newspaper published it, but it was quickly taken down.


Over the past year, the state-owned oil giant Sinopec has begun to ask its foreign joint venture partners to legally require “party-building work,” according to one executive with direct knowledge of the requests who was not authorized to speak publicly. Party building is an amorphous term that can mean general recruiting and educating but can also refer to more direct, specific activity. The foreign executive told Sinopec that putting the party in the joint venture’s legal documents would pose major problems for the head office overseas.


Sinopec did not respond to several requests for comment.


Dongfeng Motors, Cummins’s partner and one of China’s biggest carmakers, has long had strong Communist Party ties.


Instructors at Communist Party schools have used Dongfeng’s joint venture with Nissan as a model of how the party can be involved with business, according to the book “The Party” by Richard McGregor. When the partnership was negotiated, Dongfeng insisted that the new company give the chief party representative a senior management role, with a salary and compensation for expenses.

根马利德(Richard McGregor)撰写的《党》(The Party)一书,中共党校的教员已将东风与日产(Nissan)的合资企业作为共产党涉足企业经营的范例。在就合作关系谈判时,东风坚持要求新公司将党群经理作为一个高级管理职位,有工资和报销费用。

Today, Dongfeng’s Communist Party committees are working to expand their influence further. In other Dongfeng joint ventures, committees have tried to make the party more relevant for employees by holding social events.


In 2016, a group of employees from Dongfeng-Cummins traveled to the site of the Communist Party’s first base, according to Dongfeng’s website. On a rainy day, the group dressed in Red Army outfits, huddled together to hold a red flag with the hammer and sickle and smiled for the camera.


“党建+外企”释放“红色生产力”   2018年02月13日09:30    




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