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美心理学家:4%人类是毫无良心邪恶歹人
送交者: Pascal 2020年06月30日13:31:42 于 [五 味 斋] 发送悄悄话

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INTRODUCTION

Minds differ still more than faces.

—— Voltaire

想像一下吧 ——

Imagine--if you can--not having a conscience, none at all, no feelings of guilt or remorse no matter what you do, no limiting sense of concern for the well-being of strangers, friends, or even family members. Imagine no struggles with shame, not a single one in your whole life, no matter what kind of selfish, lazy, harmful, or immoral action you had taken. And pretend that the concept of responsibility is unknown to you, except as a burden others seem to accept without question, like gullible fools. Now add to this strange fantasy the ability to conceal from other people that your psychological makeup is radically different from theirs. Since everyone simply assumes that conscience is universal among human beings, hiding the fact that you are conscience-free is nearly effortless. You are not held back from any of your desires by guilt or shame, and you are never confronted by others for your cold-bloodedness. The ice water in your veins is so bizarre, so completely outside of their personal experience, that they seldom even guess at your condition.

In other words, you are completely free of internal restraints, and your unhampered liberty to do just as you please, with no pangs of conscience, is conveniently invisible to the world. You can do anything at all, and still your strange advantage over the majority of people, who are kept in line by their consciences, will most likely remain undiscovered.

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引言

头脑的差异远不止于面孔。

 —— 法国 伏尔泰


想象一下-如果可以的话-无论您做什么,都没有良心,一点都没有,没有内或re悔的感觉,对陌生人,朋友甚至家庭成员的幸福没有有限的关心。想象一下,无论您采取了哪种自私,懒惰,有害或不道德的行为,都不必为羞耻而奋斗,一生中都不要为耻。并假装你不知道责任的概念,除非别人像毫无疑问的傻瓜那样毫无疑问地承担了责任。现在,向这个陌生的幻想添加对他人隐藏您的心理构成与他们的根本不同的能力。由于每个人都简单地假设良心在人类中是普遍存在的,因此隐藏您无良心的事实几乎是毫不费力的。您不会因为内或羞愧而受到任何欲望的阻碍,并且您永远不会因冷血而与他人面对。血管中的冰水如此奇异,完全超出了他们的个人经验,以至于他们甚至很少猜测您的状况。

换句话说,您完全摆脱了内部束缚,您无忧无虑地自由行事,没有良心的,塞,这在世界范围内都是不可见的。 您可以做 任何事情,但是您仍然比大多数人的良心优势更容易被发现,而他们比大多数人的良心始终如一。


您将如何生活?您将如何利用自己的巨大和秘密优势以及其他人的相应障碍(良心)做什么?答案将主要取决于您的愿望刚好是什么,因为人们并不完全相同。即使是极度不道德的行为也不尽相同。有些人-不管他们是否有良心-都倾向于轻松自在,而另一些人则充满了梦想和野心。有些人才华横溢,才华横溢,有些则头脑呆板,大多数人(不论是否良心)都介于两者之间。有暴力的人和非暴力的人,有嗜血动机的人和没有这种食欲的人。

也许您是一个渴望金钱和权力的人,尽管您没有良心的痕迹,但您确实拥有出色的智商。您具有追求巨大财富和影响力的驱动性和知识能力,而您丝毫不会因为prevents惑人心的良心声音而动容,这些良心声音会阻止其他人为成功而做任何事情。您选择商业,政治,法律,银行,国际发展或其他各种权力专业中的任何一种,并且对职业充满冷酷的热情,无法容忍通常的道德或法律责任。如果方便的话,您可以篡改会计记录并粉碎证据,然后在背后刺伤您的员工和客户(或您的选区),以求金钱,告诉相信您的人致命的预谋谎言,企图毁掉有能力或有说服力的同事,而只是简单地将依赖和无声的团队推翻。而所有这些,都是由于您没有良心而拥有的精致自由。


您变得不可思议,无懈可击,甚至可能在全球范围内取得成功。为什么不?凭着大脑袋,没有约束计划的良心, 什么都做不了。

还是不-让我们说您不是一个这样的人。是的,你有野心,以成功的名义,你愿意做所有有良知的人永远不会考虑的事情,但是你不是一个有天赋的人。您的智力也许高于平均水平,人们认为您很聪明,甚至可能非常聪明。但是,您内心深处知道,您没有足够的认知能力或创造力来达到您暗中梦见的权力不断攀升的最高境界,这使您对整个世界不满,并嫉妒周围的人您。

作为这种人,您会陷入一个小众市场,或者可能是一系列利基市场,在这些市场中,您可以对少数人进行一定程度的控制。这些情况满足了您对动力的一点渴望,尽管您长期以来因没有更多动力而感到沮丧。摆脱那些可笑的内心声音,从而抑制他人获得强大的力量,而又没有足够的才能自己追求最终的成功,这真是令人感到骄傲。有时,您会因为无所适从的无奈而陷入生气,愤怒的情绪中。

但是您确实喜欢工作,这些工作可以使您对一些个人或小团体(尤其是相对无助或在某种程度上处于弱势的人群)进行某种程度的监督不足。您是老师或心理治疗师,离婚律师或高中教练。或者,您可能是某种顾问,经纪人,画廊所有者或人类服务总监。或者,也许您没有薪水职位,而是您公寓协会的主席,志愿医院的工作人员或父母。无论您从事什么工作,都在不被解雇或追究责任的情况下,尽可能频繁地和粗暴地操纵和欺负拇指下的人。您这样做是出于自己的考虑,即使这样做无济于事,只会给您带来刺激。让人们跳起来意味着你拥有力量-或者这就是你看到它的方式-欺凌为你提供了肾上腺素激增。很好玩。

也许您不能成为一家跨国公司的首席执行官,但是您可以吓a一些人,或者使他们像鸡一样四处乱窜,或者从他们那里偷东西,或者(最重要的是)制造使他们感到难受的情况关于自己。这就是力量,尤其是当您操纵的人在某种程度上优于您时。最振奋人心的是压倒比您更聪明或更有成就的人,或者也许是更优雅,更有吸引力或更受欢迎或在道德上令人钦佩的人。这不仅是好玩的,而且是存在的复仇。而且没有良心,这非常容易做到。您悄悄地向老板或老板的老板撒谎,哭泣着鳄鱼的眼泪,或破坏同事的项目,或向患者(或孩子)施以怒火,诱使别人信守承诺,
或者现在让我们说您是一个倾向于暴力或看到暴力行为发生的人。您可以简单地谋杀您的同事,或谋杀她的同事–或您的老板,您的前配偶,或者您的有钱人的配偶,或其他困扰您的人。您必须小心,因为如果您滑倒,可能会被系统抓住并受到惩罚。但是您永远不会面对良心,因为您没有良心。如果您决定杀死,唯一的困难就是外部的困难。你内心的一切都不会抗议。

只要您没有被强行停止, 什么都可以做。如果您在适当的时机出生,并拥有一定的家庭财富,并且您具有特殊的才能来激发他人的仇恨和匮乏感,那么您可以安排杀死大量毫无戒心的人。有了足够的资金,您就可以从远处完成此任务,并且可以安全地坐下来并满意地观看。实际上,恐怖主义(远距离进行)对于拥有嗜好杀手和无良心的人来说是理想的职业,因为如果您正确地做错了,就可能使整个国家跃跃欲试。如果那不是力量,那是什么?

或让我们想象相反的极端-您对权力毫无兴趣。相反,您是那种真的不想要任何东西的人。您唯一真正的野心是不必全力以赴。您不想像其他人一样工作。没有良心,您可以小睡或追求自己的爱好,或者看电视,或者整日闲逛。您可以在边缘生活,并从亲戚和朋友那里获得一些帮助,您可以无限期地进行此操作。人们可能会互相窃窃私语,以为您表现不佳,或者您感到沮丧,沮丧,或者相反,如果他们生气了,他们可能会抱怨您很懒。当他们加深对您的了解并感到非常生气时,他们可能会对您大喊大叫,并称您为失败者,流氓。

内的惊慌感永远不会压制您的心,也不会在深夜唤醒您。尽管您有生活方式,但您永远不会感到不负责任,疏忽大意或感到尴尬,尽管出于外观考虑,有时您会假装自己这样做。例如,如果您是一个对人以及对人的反应的正派观察者,则您可能会采取毫无生气的面部表情,说出自己对自己的生活感到羞耻,并谈论自己的腐烂感。您之所以这样做,是因为让人们认为您很沮丧比让他们一直大喊大叫或坚持找工作要方便得多。

您会注意到,确实有良心的人在对自己认为“沮丧”或“困扰”的人进行亵渎时会感到内。事实上,为了您的进一步利益,他们经常感到有责任照顾这个人。如果尽管您相对贫穷,但您仍可以设法与某人发生性关系,那么这个人(不会怀疑您的真实面貌)可能会感到特别责任。而且,由于您不需要工作,因此您的金融家不必特别富有,只要可靠地受约束即可。
我相信,将自己想象成这些人中的任何一个对您来说都是疯了,因为这种人很疯狂,很危险。疯狂但真实-他们甚至有标签。许多心理健康专家将良心很少或根本没有良心的情况称为“反人格障碍”,一种无法纠正的性格毁容,现在被认为存在于大约百分之四的人口中,也就是说,二十分之一的人五个人。这种缺乏良心的状况也被其他人称为“社会病”,或者更熟悉的术语“精神病”。实际上,无罪感是第一个被精神病学界认可的人格障碍,并且在过去一个世纪中有时使用的术语包括“ manie sansdélire”。”,“精神病性自卑”,“道德精神错乱”和“道德卑鄙”。

根据当前的精神病学标签,《精神障碍诊断和统计手册》 IV根据美国精神病学协会的说法,当个人具有以下七个特征中的至少三个特征时,应考虑对“反社会型人格障碍”的临床诊断:(1)不遵守社会规范;(2)欺骗,操纵;(3)冲动,未提前计划;(4)烦躁,进取;(5)ck顾自己或他人的安全;(六)一贯的不负责任;(7)在受到伤害,虐待或被他人偷走后没有悔意。这些“症状”中的任何三个出现在个体中,足以使许多精神科医生怀疑这种疾病。

其他研究人员和临床医生,其中许多人认为APA的定义比真正的“精神病”或“社会病”更好地描述了简单的“犯罪”,指出了整个社会病态的其他文献记载特征。这些特征中较常见的一种是轻浮和肤浅的魅力,使真正的社会变态者比喻或字面意义上引诱他人-一种光辉或感召力,最初可使社会变态者显得更迷人或更有趣。比他周围的大多数普通人都要多。他或她比其他人更自发,或更紧张,或更“复杂”,或更性感,或更有趣。有时,这种“社交病态的魅力”会伴随着宏伟的自我价值感,乍一看可能令人信服,但仔细一看,似乎显得奇怪或可笑。

此外,社交病患者比正常人更需要刺激,这导致他们经常遭受社会,身体,经济或法律风险。具有特征的是,他们可以吸引其他人与他们一起进行危险的冒险,并且作为一个整体,他们以其病态的卧床和拘束以及与“朋友”的寄生关系而闻名。不论成人的受教育程度或地位如何,他们都有早期行为问题的历史,有时包括吸毒或有记录的青少年犯罪,并且始终包括对所发生的任何问题不承担责任。

社交病因其情感浅薄,他们可能声称拥有的任何深情的情感的空洞和短暂的性质,令人叹为观止的冷漠而特别出名。他们没有移情的痕迹,也没有与伴侣情感上联系的真正兴趣。一旦消除了表面的魅力,他们的婚姻就变得无爱,单面,并且几乎总是短期的。如果婚姻伴侣已经到反社会的任何值,这是因为伴侣视为财产,一个是,反社会可能会感到愤怒失去,但从来没有悲伤或责任。

所有这些特征,以及美国精神病学协会列出的“症状”,都是我们大多数人无法理解的心理状况,缺乏我们的基本第七意识-良知的行为表现。

大约有4%的人口疯狂,令人恐惧-真实。


How will you live your life? What will you do with your huge and secret advantage, and with the corresponding handicap of other people (conscience)? The answer will depend largely on just what your desires happen to be, because people are not all the same. Even the profoundly unscrupulous are not all the same. Some people-- whether they have a conscience or not-- favor the ease of inertia, while others are filled with dreams and wild ambitions. Some human beings are brilliant and talented, some are dull-witted, and most, conscience or not, are somewhere in between. There are violent people and nonviolent ones, individuals who are motivated by bloodlust and those who have no such appetites.

Maybe you are someone who craves money and power, and though you have no vestige of conscience, you do have a magnificent IQ. You have the driving nature and the intellectual capacity to pursue tremendous wealth and influence, and you are in no way moved by the nagging voice of conscience that prevents other people from doing everything and anything they have to do to succeed. You choose business, politics, the law, banking, international development, or any of a broad array of other power professions, and you pursue your career with a cold passion that tolerates none of the usual moral or legal incumbrances. When it is expedient, you doctor the accounting and shred the evidence, you stab your employees and your clients (or your constituency) in the back, marry for money, tell lethal premeditated lies to people who trust you, attempt to ruin colleagues who are powerful or eloquent, and simply steam-roll over groups who are dependent and voiceless. And all of this you do with the exquisite freedom that results from having no conscience whatsoever.

You become unimaginably, unassailably, and maybe even globally successful. Why not? With your big brain, and no conscience to rein in your schemes, you can do anything at all.

Or no--let us say you are not quite such a person. You are ambitious, yes, and in the name of success you are willing to do all manner of things that people with conscience would never consider, but you are not an intellectually gifted individual. Your intelligence is above average perhaps, and people think of you as smart, maybe even very smart. But you know in your heart of hearts that you do not have the cognitive wherewithal, or the creativity, to reach the careening heights of power you secretly dream about, and this makes you resentful of the world at large, and envious of the people around you.

As this sort of person, you ensconce yourself in a niche, or maybe a series of niches, in which you can have some amount of control over small numbers of people. These situations satisfy a little of your desire for power, although you are chronically aggravated at not having more. It chafes to be so free of the ridiculous inner voice that inhibits others from achieving great power, without having enough talent to pursue the ultimate successes yourself. Sometimes you fall into sulky, rageful moods caused by a frustration that no one but you understands.


But you do enjoy jobs that afford you a certain undersupervised control over a few individuals or small groups, preferably people and groups who are relatively helpless or in some way vulnerable. You are a teacher or a psychotherapist, a divorce lawyer or a high school coach. Or maybe you are a consultant of some kind, a broker or a gallery owner or a human services director. Or maybe you do not have a paid position, and are instead the president of your condominium association, or a volunteer hospital worker, or a parent. Whatever your job, you manipulate and bully the people who are under your thumb, as often and as outrageously as you can without getting fired or held accountable. You do this for its own sake, even when it serves no purpose except to give you a thrill. Making people jump means you have power-- or this is the way you see it-- and bullying provides you with an adrenaline rush. It is fun.

Maybe you cannot be the CEO of a multinational corporation, but you can frighten a few people, or cause them to scurry around like chickens, or steal from them, or--maybe best of all--create situations that cause them to feel bad about themselves. And this is power, especially when the people you manipulate are superior to you in some way. Most invigorating of all is to bring down people who are smarter or more accomplished than you, or perhaps classier, more attractive or popular or morally admirable. This is not only good fun--it is existential vengeance. And without a conscience, it is amazingly easy to do. You quietly lie to the boss or to the boss’s boss, cry some crocodile tears, or sabotage a coworker’s project, or gaslight a patient (or a child), bait people with promises, or provide a little misinformation that will never be traced back to you.
Or now let us say you are a person who has a proclivity for violence or for seeing violence done. You can simply murder your coworker, or have her murdered--or your boss, or your ex-spouse, or your wealthy lover’s spouse, or anyone else who bothers you. You have to be careful, because if you slip up you may be caught and punished by the system. But you will never be confronted by your conscience, because you have no conscience. If you decide to kill, the only difficulties will be the external ones. Nothing inside of you will ever protest.

Provided you are not forcibly stopped, you can do anything at all. If you are born at the right time, with some access to family fortune, and you have a special talent for whipping up other people’s hatred and sense of deprivation, you can arrange to kill large numbers of unsuspecting people. With enough money, you can accomplish this from far away, and you can sit back safely and watch in satisfaction. In fact, terrorism (done from a distance) is the ideal occupation for a person who is possessed of bloodlust and no conscience, because if you do it just right, you may be able to make a whole nation jump. And if that is not power, what is?

Or let us imagine the opposite extreme--you have no interest in power. To the contrary, you are the sort of person who really does not want much of anything. Your only real ambition is not to have to exert yourself to get by. You do not want to work like everyone else does. Without a conscience, you can nap or pursue your hobbies or watch television or just hang out somewhere all day long. Living a bit on the fringes, and with some handouts from relatives and friends, you can do this indefinitely. People may whisper to each other that you are an underachiever, or that you are depressed, a sad case, or in contrast, if they get angry, they may grumble that you are lazy. When they get to know you better, and get really angry, they may scream at you and call you a loser, a bum. But it will never occur to them that you literally do not have a conscience, that in such a fundamental way, your very mind is not the same as theirs.

The panicked feeling of a guilty conscience never squeezes at your heart or wakes you in the middle of the night. Despite your lifestyle, you never feel irresponsible, neglectful, or so much as embarrassed, although for the sake of appearances, sometimes you pretend that you do. For example, if you are a decent observer of people and what they react to, you may adopt a lifeless facial expression, say how ashamed of your life you are, and talk about how rotten you feel. This you do only because it is more convenient to have people think you are depressed than it is to have them shouting at you all the time, or insisting that you get a job.

You notice that people who do have a conscience feel guilty when they harangue someone they believe to be “depressed” or “troubled.” As a matter of fact, to your further advantage, they often feel obliged to take care of such a person. If, despite your relative poverty, you can manage to get yourself into a sexual relationship with someone, this person--who does not suspect what you are really like--may feel particularly obligated. And since all you want is not to have to work, your financier does not have to be especially rich, just reliably conscience-bound.
I trust that imagining yourself as any of these people feels insane to you, because such people are insane, dangerously so. Insane but real--they even have a label. Many mental health professionals refer to the condition of little or no conscience as “antisocial personality disorder,” a noncorrectable disfigurement of character that is now thought to be present in about four percent of the population--that is to say, one in twenty-five people. This condition of missing conscience is called by other names too, most often “sociopathy,” or the somewhat more familiar term, “psychopathy.” Guiltlessness was in fact the first personality disorder to be recognized by psychiatry, and terms that have been used at times over the past century include “manie sans délire,” “psychopathic inferiority,” “moral insanity,” and “moral imbecility.”

According to the current bible of psychiatric labels, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV of the American Psychiatric Association, the clinical diagnosis of “antisocial personality disorder” should be considered when an individual possesses at least three of the following seven characteristics: (1) failure to conform to social norms; (2) deceitfulness, manipulativeness; (3) impulsivity, failure to plan ahead; (4) irritability, aggressiveness; (5) reckless disregard for the safety of self or others; (6) consistent irresponsibility; (7) lack of remorse after having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another person. The presence in an individual of any three of these “symptoms,” taken together, is enough to make many psychiatrists suspect the disorder.

Other researchers and clinicians, many of whom think the APA’s definition describes simple “criminality” better than true “psychopathy” or “sociopathy,” point to additional documented characteristics of sociopaths as a group. One of the more frequently observed of these traits is a glib and superficial charm that allows the true sociopath to seduce other people, figuratively or literally--a kind of glow or charisma that, initially, can make the sociopath seem more charming or more interesting than most of the normal people around him. He or she is more spontaneous, or more intense, or somehow more “complex,” or sexier, or more entertaining than everyone else. Sometimes this “sociopathic charisma” is accompanied by a grandiose sense of self-worth that may be compelling at first, but upon closer inspection may seem odd or perhaps laughable. (“Someday the world will realize how special I am,” or “You know that after me, no other lover will do.”)

In addition, sociopaths have a greater than normal need for stimulation, which results in their taking frequent social, physical, financial, or legal risks. Characteristically, they can charm others into attempting dangerous ventures with them, and as a group they are known for their pathological lying and conning, and their parasitic relationships with “friends.” Regardless of how educated or highly placed as adults, they may have a history of early behavior problems, sometimes including drug use or recorded juvenile delinquency, and always including a failure to acknowledge responsibility for any problems that occurred.

And sociopaths are noted especially for their shallowness of emotion, the hollow and transient nature of any affectionate feelings they may claim to have, a certain breathtaking callousness. They have no trace of empathy and no genuine interest in bonding emotionally with a mate. Once the surface charm is scraped off, their marriages are loveless, one-sided, and almost always short-term. If a marriage partner has any value to the sociopath, it is because the partner is viewed as a possession, one that the sociopath may feel angry to lose, but never sad or accountable.

All of these characteristics, along with the “symptoms” listed by the American Psychiatric Association, are the behavioral manifestations of what is for most of us an unfathomable psychological condition, the absence of our essential seventh sense-- conscience.

Crazy, and frightening-- and real, in about four percent of the population.


Interview with Dr. Martha StoutInterview with Dr. Martha Stout

        作者: Marthat Stout, Ph.D.


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倘若依据这位心理学家玛莎的估算,

往大了说,地球人类总人口78亿的 4% 为 3.12 亿;

往小了说,508万美国华裔人口的 4% 为 203,200,

均为没有丁点儿良心、羞耻感、心理病态、精神变态

的人类渣滓;

再往小了说呢 ...... 


这仅仅是和平时期的恶徒比例,战争时期呢?

当组织以最神圣最正义的主义呼召你应征入伍、

命令你举起手枪瞄准敌方妇女儿童的后脑

扣动扳机开枪的时候,这个4%的比例就会

大幅蹿升为 30 % !!!


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