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The Rig Veda《ㄖㄨㄟㄍㄜ颂赞ㄨㄟㄉㄚ智识》六首试译
送交者: 比较政策 2016年08月13日18:13:31 于 [彩虹之约] 发送悄悄话

 印度最古的圣典The Rig(歌颂/诗节[1]) Veda(智慧、知识)被音译为《梨俱吠陀》,即使费力不去联想这四个表意汉字组成的词语的意义,发音也不准确。按照在“中文表示里导入汉音元素的提案”[2],可以译为《ㄖㄨㄟㄍㄜ·ㄨㄟㄉ》;它也被意译为《歌咏明论》或《赞诵明论,不过它不是歌咏[3],也不是“论文”,所以译为《颂赞智识》比较妥当。考虑到Bible的译名《圣经》,译为《颂赞圣典》可能更达意。关于其内容,中文的介绍以翻译过其中一些诗咏的金克木[4]在《梵语文学史》第一编第二章第一节里所讲的为主调:“《梨俱吠陀》的诗歌,…首先在奴隶社会中被祭司用作宣传神秘主义的材料。在封建社会里,它几乎被一般人遗忘了,除了作为祷告词以外,只有少数哲学家还用来作宣传唯心主义的依据。到了近代,许多西方学者花费了很大力量,作了不少比较语言学的和资料考证性的工作;但是由于他们常怀偏见,而且不懂社会发展规律,又用唯心主义观点和形而上学的方法,结果是在解说词句和排比资料方面有很大贡献,而对内容仍往往不能正确理解。”[5]百度百科的条目等也有相当详细的解释[6],巫白慧译《梨俱吠陀神曲选》2010年由商务印书馆出版,作为第一本(部分)汉译本,应该有其价值,我没有读到正文,故不便评述。但可以从网上看到如诗塔夫罗金的评价:“译名难辨,研究方法据作者所言,是贯彻了恩格斯所提倡的方法,这就把思想限制在了很狭隘的范围内,只有诗歌的内容尚且值得一读。”[7]所幸恩格斯先生没有印度古典知识,巫白慧的译本没有在内容上直接引用恩格斯的条件。

英文有不少译本,我阅读的Griffith译文版(1896年初版)[8]古朴优雅,每一句分两行印出,如开首:

1 I Laud Agni, the chosen Priest, God, minister of sacrifice,

The hotar, lavishest of wealth.

虽然难懂,却能感受原文的咏味;特别重要的是它的注释对意译很有价值参考[9]。更早(1850年)出版的Wilson英译本有更多的注释[10]。为了准确、易懂,我也以Macdonell的近代英译本[11]和Doniger的当代英译本[12],以及印度学者的英译本[13]为参考。

从网上看到,巫白慧译文的格式统一,如第10卷曲129第一节颂赞的两行诗

Then was not non-existent nor existent: there was no realm of air, no sky beyond it.

What covered in, and where? and what gave shelter? Was water there, unfathomed depth of water?[14] 分为四行译为:

“无既非有,有亦非有;

无空气界,无远天界。

何物隐藏?藏于何处?

谁保护之?深广大水?[15]

这里不评论翻译的内容,只是指出为了准确表达深奥的原文,应该用散文体翻译。这也适用于《拉玛王子传奇》(罗摩衍那)的翻译。这里,我试译对ㄚㄍㄜㄋㄧ火神[16]的六首诗颂,以此探讨一些印度古典经文的汉译原则和方法,抛砖引玉。

BOOK The First HYMN I Agni 第一卷曲1、ㄚㄍㄜㄋㄧ火神[17]

1】I magnify Agni the domestic priest[18], the divine ministrant of the sacrifice, the invoker, best bestower of treasure.

我高声赞美火神,这个被选出的家族祭司、牺牲的神圣管理者、祈祷者和最慷慨的财富赠予者。

2】Agni to be magnified by past and present seers, may he conduct the gods here.

受古代和今天圣贤赞颂的火神,让他就在这里召唤众神吧。

3】Through Agni may one obtain wealth day by day (and) prosperity, glorious (and) most abounding in heroes.

通过火神,人每天获得财富、繁荣、荣光、和无尽的英雄后代[19]

4】O Agni, the worship and sacrifice that thou encompassest on every side, that same goes to the gods.

ㄚ!火神,你热诚供奉的牺牲完美不断地归于众神。

5】May Agni the invoker, of wise intelligence, the true[20], of most brilliant fame, the god come with the gods.

祈祷者火神,以你睿智的才能、真正的、最光辉的声望,与众神到这里来吧!

6】Just what good thou, O Agni, wilt do for the worshipper, that (purpose) of thee (comes) true, O Aṅgiras[21].

ㄚ!火神,无论什么样的祈求,你都会赐予给崇拜者。ㄚ!ㄢㄍㄨㄟㄌㄚㄙ,确实如此。

7】To thee, O Agni, day by day, O illuminer of gloom, we come with thought bringing homage;

ㄚ!火神,为了你驱赶黑夜,我们带着敬畏之心天天祷告来崇敬你。

8】(to thee) ruling over sacrifices, the shining guardian of order, growing in thine own house.

祭祀的统管者、永恒秩序的光芒四照的守卫者,你的庭园会不断增长。

9】So, O Agni, be easy of access to us, as a father to his son; abide with us for our well-being.

 正如一个父亲对儿子那样,ㄚ!火神,请亲近我们,为了我们的幸福与我们同在[22]

 

BOOK The First HYMN XII. Agni.第一卷曲12、ㄚㄍㄜㄋㄧ火神[23]

1】 We choose Agni the messenger, the herald, master of all wealth,

Well skilled in this our sacrifice.

我们选择火神,这个使者、预报者、所有财富的主人,精于这种祭司。

2】 With callings ever they invoke Agni, Agni, Lord of the House[24],

Oblation-bearer, much beloved.

召唤神灵时,他们就祈求火神。火神,你是深受家家爱戴的主君、供奉的承担者。

3】 Bring the Gods hither, Agni, born for him who strews the sacred grass:

Thou art our herald, meet for praise.

把众神请来,火神,为点缀好圣草的人,你是我们的预报者,接受颂赞。

4】 Wake up the willing Gods, since thou, Agni, performest embassage:

Sit on the sacred grass with Gods.

当你唤醒愿意来的诸神,火神,扮演着大使的角色,与诸神坐在圣草上。

5】 O Agni, radiant One, to whom the holy oil is poured, burn up

Our enemies whom fiends protect.

ㄚ!光芒四照的火神,圣油为你注入,烧光了被恶魔庇护着的我们的敌人。

6】By Agni Agni is inflamed, Lord of the House, wise, young, who bears

The gift: the ladle is his mouth.

通过火神的火种点燃的神火,是房屋的主人、智慧、年轻、承担着礼物:圣油通过长勺注入他的嘴口[25]

7】 Praise Agni in the sacrifice, the Sage whose ways are ever true,

The God who driveth grief away.

在奉献中赞美火神,圣贤的方法永远真实,悲痛已经被神驱散。

8】 God, Agni, be his strong defence who, lord of sacrificial gifts,

Worshippeth thee the messenger.

火神,伟大的神、使者,愿你保佑那个向你大量奉献的主人。

9】 Whoso with sacred gift would fain call Agni to the feast of Gods,

O Purifier, favour him.

任何带着圣礼的人都会欣然招请火神到诸神的盛宴上。ㄚ,净化者,祝福他吧!

10】 Such, Agni, Purifier, bright, bring hither to our sacrifice,

To our oblation bring the Gods.

就这样,火神,明亮的净化者,把诸神带到了我们的牺牲和奉献。

11】 So lauded by our newest song of praise bring opulence to us,

And food, with heroes for our sons.

因此,通过我们最新的赞美歌的朗诵,为我们带来了富足、食品和英雄子孙[26]

12】 O Agni, by effulgent flame, by all invokings of the Gods,

Show pleasure in this laud of ours.

ㄚ!火神,由灿烂的火焰,由向诸神的所有祈求,在这场我们的赞美里显示你的喜悦吧!

 

BOOK The First HYMN XXVI. Agni.第一卷曲26、ㄚㄍㄜㄋㄧ火神[27]

1】 O Worth of oblation, Lord of prospering powers, assume thy robes,

And offer this our sacrifice.

ㄚ!供献与繁荣的主宰,披上你的长袍烈焰,请献上我们的奉献。

2】 Sit ever to be chosen, as our Priest, most youthful, through our hymns,

O Agni, through our heavenly word.

作为我们永远年轻的祭司,ㄚ!火神,由我们的赞颂,由我们的天堂祝词,请坐上被选定的席位。

3】 For here a Father for his son, Kinsman for kinsman worshippeth,

And Friend, choice-worthy, for his friend.

就好像父亲为了儿子、亲属为了亲属、朋友为了自己称心挑选的朋友。

4】 Here let the foe-destroyers sit, Varua, Mitra, Aryaman,

Like men[28], upon our sacred grass.

像人们的元祖ㄇㄚㄋㄨ一样,让驱赶敌人的诸神ㄨㄚㄌㄨㄋㄚ[29]、ㄇㄧㄊㄜㄌㄚ[30]、ㄚㄚㄇㄢ坐在我们圣草上。

5】 O ancient Herald, be thou glad in this our rite and fellowship:

Hearken thou well to these our songs.

ㄚ!先贤,愿你满意我们的仪式和友谊,喜欢听取我们的颂赞。

6】 Whate’er in this perpetual course we sacrifice to God and God[31],

That gift is offered up in thee.

在这永不停止的进程中我们奉献给这神那神的所有一切,那礼物也都是献给你的。

7】 May he be our dear household Lord, Priest, pleasant and, choice-worthy may

We, with bright fires, be dear to him.

愿他成为我们家庭的主君、祭司,让我们心满意足地与明亮的火焰一同亲近他。

8】 The Gods, adored with brilliant fires, have granted precious wealth to us;

So, with bright fires, we pray to thee.

被灿烂火焰崇敬的诸神已经赐予我们珍贵的财富,所以我们用明亮的火焰向你祈祷。

9】 And, O Immortal One, so may the eulogies of mortal men

Belong to us and thee alike.

而且,ㄚ!不朽之神,愿凡人的颂词也同属于我们和你。

10】 With all thy fires, O Agni, find pleasure in this our sacrifice,

And this our speech, O Son of Strength.

以所有这些火焰,ㄚ!火神,力量之子,请从我们的奉献和这个演说中得到欢乐。

 

BOOK The First HYMN XXVII. Agni.第一卷曲27、ㄚㄍㄜㄋㄧ火神[32]

1】 With worship will I glorify thee, Agni, like a long-tailed steed,

Imperial Lord of sacred rites.

以崇拜我将献给你荣耀,火神,你像一匹长尾[33]的骏马,是神圣仪式的帝王。

2】 May the far-striding Son of Strength, bringer of great felicity,

Who pours his gifts[34] like rain, be ours.

愿这昂首阔步的力量之子带来极大的幸福,把他的祝福像大雨一样降临给我们。

3】 Lord of all life, from near; from far[35], do thou, O Agni evermore

Protect us from the sinful man.

无处不在的万物之主,ㄚ!火神,愿你永远保佑我们远离恶人。

4】 O Agni, graciously announce this our oblation to the Gods,

And this our newest song of praise.

ㄚ!火神,优雅地向诸神宣布这个我们的奉献和这个我们最新的颂赞吧。

5】 Give us a share of strength most high, a share of strength that is below,

A share of strength that is between.

赐予我们一份来自天堂、一份来自地上和一份来自天空的财富吧[36]

6】 Thou dealest gifts, resplendent One; nigh, as with waves of Sindhu, thou

Swift streamest to the worshipper[37].

你,辉煌者,分派礼物。就像随着印度河的水波,你快捷地分流到崇拜者。

7】 That man is lord of endless strength whom thou protectest in the fight,

Agni, or urgest to the fray.

火神,你在战斗中保护的人是力大无穷的主人,渴望奔赴战场。

8】 Him, whosoever he may be, no man may vanquish, mighty One:

Nay, very glorious power is his.

万能者,不管他是谁,都不会被任何人征服,绝不。他的力量非常光荣。

9】 May he who dwells with all mankind bear us with war-steeds through the fight,

And with the singers win the spoil.

他与人类同住,愿他在战斗中骑着战马承担我们的命运,与祭祀的歌咏者们赢得战利品。

10】 Help, thou who knowest lauds, this work, this eulogy to Rudra[38], him

Adorable in every house.

你懂得颂赞,请帮助把这个奉献、这个悼念献给受家家户户爱戴的ㄖㄨㄉㄜ。

11】 May this our God, great, limitless, smoke-bannered[39] excellently bright,

Urge us to strength and holy thought.

愿这个我们的神伟大、无边、像彗星般的出奇明亮,促使我们获得力量和神圣信念。

12】 Like some rich Lord of men may he, Agni the banner of the Gods,

Refulgent, hear us through our lauds.

愿他像富裕的主人们,辉煌的火神,诸神的旗手,从我们的赞颂听到我们。

13】 Glory to Gods, the mighty and the lesser, glory to Gods the younger and the elder!

Let us, if we have power, pay the God worship: no better prayer than this, ye Gods, acknowledge.

荣耀归于诸神!无论神力大小;荣耀归于诸神!不管年老年少。让我们有能力者都来敬拜神,诸神都承认,这是最好的祈求。

 

BOOK The Sixth HYMN IX. Agni.第六卷曲9、ㄚㄍㄜㄋㄧ火神[40]

1】 One half of day is dark, and bright the other: both atmospheres move on by sage devices.

Agni Vaisvanara[41], when born as Sovran, hath with his lustre overcome the darkness.

一天之中黑夜与明亮各分一半,他们都以自身的贤明机制运行。全能的火神生为君王,以他的光亮战胜了黑暗。

2】 I know not either warp or woof, I know not the web they weave when moving to the contest.

Whose son shall here speak words that must be spoken without assistance from the Father near him?

我不会纺织经线和纬纱,我也不知道参加祭祀竞赛的人们如何编织衣布。谁的儿子将在这里发表超越父亲的演说[42]

3】 For both the warp and woof he understandeth, and in due time shall speak what should be spoken,

Who knoweth as the immortal world's Protector, descending, seeing with no aid from other.

他会纺织经线和纬纱,在适当的时候将说适当的话。作为永生世界的保护者他知晓、下凡来透见事物。

4】 He is the Priest, the first of all: behold him. Mid mortal men he is the light immortal.

Here was he born, firm-seated in his station Immortal, ever waxing in his body.

他是祭祀的首席祭司,引人注目。他是凡夫俗子中的不朽明光。他就在这里出生、坚定地驻守在岗位上从不衰老、周身更加光亮。

5】 A firm light hath been set for men to look on: among all things that fly the mind is swiftest.

All Gods of one accord, with one intention, move unobstructed to a single purpose.

一个坚定的亮光为人们的瞻仰树立起来,精神在所有的事物中飞传得最快。众神一致地以同一个意志克服阻碍奔向同一个目标。

6】 Mine ears unclose to hear, mine eye to see him; the light that harbours in my spirit broadens.

Far roams my mind whose thoughts are in the distance. What shall I speak, what shall I now imagine?

我的耳朵竖起倾听、眼睛睁大张望着他,我心中的光亮扩散开来。我的思绪漫游在远方。我该说什么?我该想象什么?

7】 All the Gods bowed them down in fear before thee, Agni, when thou wast dwelling in the darkness.

Vaisvanara[43] be gracious to assist us, may the Immortal favour us and help us.

火神,当你藏身于黑夜之中,众神都敬畏地向你鞠躬。愿全能的神赐予我们仁慈;愿不朽之神保佑我们。

 

BOOK The Tenth HYMN V. Agni.第十卷曲5、ㄚㄍㄜㄋㄧ火神[44]

1】 He only is the Sea, holder of treasures: born many a time he views the hearts within us.

He hides him in the secret couple's bosom. The Bird dwells in the middle of the fountain.

他是唯一的圣海,有无尽的宝藏[45]。出生过无数次,他看穿了我们的心。他依附在隐蔽的一对[46]的怀抱,鸟[47]居住在泉源之间。

2】 Inhabiting one dwelling-place in common, strong Stallions and the Mares have come together.

The sages guard the seat of Holy Order, and keep the highest names concealed within them.

住息在共同的地方,健壮的公马和母马来到了一起。圣贤们守卫着通往神圣真理的道路[48],保守着最高贵者们的秘密。

3】 The Holy Pair[49], of wondrous power, have coupled: they formed the Infant, they who bred produced him.

The central point of all that moves and moves not, the while they wove the Sage's thread with insight.

这神圣的一对以神奇的力量结合,他们造出了婴儿,培养他长大[50]。当他们编织圣贤的纺纱时,他是所有运动的和静止的物体的中心。

4】 For tracks of Order[51] and refreshing viands attend from ancient times the goodly Infant.

Wearing him as a mantle, Earth and Heaven grow strong by food of pleasant drink and fatness.

自古以来,参访圣婴就是为了真理的足迹和鲜美的佳肴。天地给他披带袈裟、享受美食和甜饮而茁壮成长。

5】 He, calling loudly to the Seven red Sisters, hath, skilled in sweet drink, brought them to be looked on.

He, born of old, in middle air hath halted, and sought and found the covering robe of Pusan.

高声地招呼七个艳丽的姐妹[52],他显示给她们拿手的甜饮。他出生久远、停滞在半空,寻求并找到ㄆㄨㄙㄢ[53]的长袍。

6】 Seven are the pathways which the wise have fashioned; to one of these may come the troubled mortal.

He standeth in the dwelling of the Highest, a Pillar, on sure ground where paths are parted.

智者们塑造了七个境界,其中之一会让陷入困境的凡夫进入。他挺立在最高者的居住地,像一个建在道路分叉处的坚实地基上的支柱[54]

7】 Not Being, Being in the highest heaven, in Aditi's bosom and in Daksa's birthplace,

Is Agni, our first-born of Holy Order, the Milch-cow and the Bull in life's beginning.

在最高的天堂里无论是存在、或是还没有存在,不管是在ㄚㄉㄧㄊㄧ[55]的怀抱还是在ㄉㄚㄎㄙㄚ[56]的出生地,火神既是我们神圣秩序的初生子,也是生命原初的乳牛和公牛。

 

[赵京,中日美比较政策研究所,2016年8月13日第一稿]



[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rigveda rg源自rc,是歌颂的意思,也指两句短话构成一节的梵文诗体。

[2] 赵京,201675日初稿。

[3] 如《摩奴法典》(迭朗善译,马香雪转译,北京:商务印书馆1982)第四卷1231的引用:“娑摩吠陀的经文系用诗体写成,以供歌咏;梨俱吠陀亦用诗体,但仅应朗诵

[4] http://www.yinduabc.com/hindu/1647.htm 有四首译文。

[5] http://cidian.foyuan.net/%C0%E6%BE%E3%B7%CD%CD%D3/

[6] http://baike.baidu.com/view/84755.htm

[7] https://book.douban.com/subject/4719016/

[8] Ralph T.H. Griffith trans. Quality Paperback Book Club, New York, 1992.

[9] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b8WLGAYGlbAGriffith英译文朗诵,还配有简略的中日韩等多种语言翻译字面。

[10] H.H. Wilson trans. Rig-Veda Sanhita, New Delhi: Cosmo Publications, 1977.

[11] Rigveda, A Vedic Reader for Students, trans. Arthur Anthony Macdonell, 1971. http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/rigveda-a-vedic-reader-for-students

[12] Wendy Doniger trtans. The Rig Vade: An Anthology,Penguin Books, 1981.此书是为公众而不是为学者所写,对每一首诗的注释联想比较丰富,不一定准确。

[13] Sri Aurobindo, Hymns to the Mystic Fire, Pondicherry, India, 1952.

[14] Ralph T.H. Griffith trans. Quality Paperback Book Club, New York, 1992. P.633.

[15] http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_96f6cbb10102wgxx.html

[16] Agni,也音译为阿耆阿格尼意译准确就应该用意译火神,有时也指神火。它担当天和地、人和神之间的信使、调解者,在《智识颂赞》中有两百多首赞颂它,占第二位。所有古代经文都是在夜晚的篝火边被传颂吟唱,对火的崇拜自然是首先的话题。

[17] 英文引自Rigveda, A Vedic Reader for Students, trans. Arthur Anthony Macdonell, 1971. http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/rigveda-a-vedic-reader-for-students

[18] 指导家族崇拜礼仪等的祭司。H.H. Wilson trans. Rig-Veda Sanhita, New Delhi: Cosmo Publications, 1977. 也译为chosen priest. Ralph T.H. Griffith trans. Quality Paperback Book Club, New York, 1992.

[19] Wendy Doniger trtans. The Rig Vade: An Anthology,Penguin Books, 1981. P.99:  “most abounding heroic sons.” H.H. Wilson trans. Rig-Veda Sanhita, New Delhi: Cosmo Publications, 1977. P.3: “the multiplier of mankind.” 《梨俱吠陀》第1卷第1首第13节,引自季羡林主编:《印度古代文学史》第20页。http://www.sasnet.cn/zuixincg/showcontent.asp?iD=134

我赞美阿耆尼祭司,

  神圣的祭祀执行者,

  咏歌者,财富赐予者。

  他受到古代仙人赞美,

  他受到今日仙人赞美,

  但愿他把诸神带来!

  但愿仰仗他获得财富,

  兴旺发达,蒸蒸日上,

  英雄辈出,名声远扬。

[20] Ralph T.H. Griffith trans. Quality Paperback Book Club, New York, 1992. P.1: “truthful.”

[21] 古代祭司家族,通常指ㄨㄟㄉㄚ圣典中出现的火神等。作为高于众神和人的存在,他们的牺牲仪式成为祭司们必须遵守的典范。据《摩奴法典》(迭朗善译,马香雪转译,北京:商务印书馆1982)序言(第5页):“g字常读硬音,就像在它后面有一个u字一样,所以Angiras,读Anguiras,不读Anjiras

[22]《梨俱吠陀》第1卷第1首第89节。引自金克木选译:《印度古诗选》第4页,湖南人民出版社,1984年。http://www.sasnet.cn/zuixincg/showcontent.asp?iD=134  

你主宰着各种祭祀,

  是秩序的光辉的保卫者,

  在自己宅内不断增长。

  愿你对我们,如父对子,

  阿耆尼(火)啊!容易亲近,

  愿你与我们同居,为我们造福。

[23] Ralph T.H. Griffith trans. Quality Paperback Book Club, New York, 1992.  http://www.hinduwebsite.com/sacredscripts/hinduism/rigveda/agni_1.asp 专门只列出对火神的赞颂,不过要留意一些拼写错误。

[24] H.H. Wilson trans. Rig-Veda Sanhita, New Delhi: Cosmo Publications, 1977. P.3: “the lord of men”. Sri Aurobindo, Hymns to the Mystic Fire, Pondicherry, India, 1952. P.5: “the Lord of the crestures”.

[25] Sri Aurobindo, Hymns to the Mystic Fire, Pondicherry, India, 1952. P.7: “whose mouth receives the offerings.”

[26] H.H. Wilson trans. Rig-Veda Sanhita, New Delhi: Cosmo Publications, 1977. P.31: “the source of progeny.”

[27] Ralph T.H. Griffith trans. Quality Paperback Book Club, New York, 1992. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b8WLGAYGlbA用这个英译文朗诵,还配有简略的中日韩等多种语言翻译字面。

[28] H.H. Wilson trans. Rig-Veda Sanhita, New Delhi: Cosmo Publications, 1977. P.68: “as they did at the sacrifice of MANUS.” Wendy Doniger trtans. The Rig Vade: An Anthology,Penguin Books, 1981. P.100: “as upon Manu’s.”  

[29]现译为伐楼拿,又译婆罗那,天空,雨水及天海之神,他亦是掌管法规与阴间的神。https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E4%BC%90%E6%A5%BC%E6%8B%BF

[30]契约同伴之意。

[31] Wendy Doniger trtans. The Rig Vade: An Anthology,Penguin Books, 1981. P.100: “to this god or that god”.

[32] Ralph T.H. Griffith trans. Quality Paperback Book Club, New York, 1992.   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b8WLGAYGlbA用这个英译文朗诵,还配有简略的中日韩等多种语言翻译字面。

[33] 驱赶苍蝇。

[34] blessings祝福。H.H. Wilson trans. Rig-Veda Sanhita, New Delhi: Cosmo Publications, 1977.

[35] who goest everywhere无处不在。H.H. Wilson trans. Rig-Veda Sanhita, New Delhi: Cosmo Publications, 1977.

[36] H.H. Wilson trans. Rig-Veda Sanhita, New Delhi: Cosmo Publications, 1977. “the food that is in heaven and mid-air,” “the wealth that is on earth.”

[37] H.H. Wilson trans. Rig-Veda Sanhita, New Delhi: Cosmo Publications, 1977.没有出现难解的nigh()

[38] 怒吼者,这里指火神,形容火焰的势头高涨。本身并没有在圣典中参与祭祀,只是附属出现。Wendy Doniger trtans. The Rig Vade: An Anthology,Penguin Books, 1981. P.219.

[39] 这个难懂的词来自H.H. Wilson trans. Rig-Veda Sanhita, New Delhi: Cosmo Publications, 1977,专门形容火神像彗星那样明亮。

[40] Ralph T.H. Griffith trans. Quality Paperback Book Club, New York, 1992.  http://www.hinduwebsite.com/sacredscripts/rig_veda_book_6.asp  ,不过要留意一些拼写错误。

[41] Wendy Doniger trtans. The Rig Vade: An Anthology,Penguin Books, 1981. P.116译为Of-all-menSri Aurobindo, Hymns to the Mystic Fire, Pondicherry, India, 1952. p.343译为Godhead

[42] Wendy Doniger trtans. The Rig Vade: An Anthology,Penguin Books, 1981. P.116Sri Aurobindo, Hymns to the Mystic Fire, Pondicherry, India, 1952. p.343。前者的译文面对公众,特别在注释中掺入丰富的文学想象,后者的译文则很少注释。这样的段落即使读起来缺少逻辑联系,我也尽量少加入主观推理。

[43] Wendy Doniger trtans. The Rig Vade: An Anthology,Penguin Books, 1981. P.116译为Of-all-menSri Aurobindo, Hymns to the Mystic Fire, Pondicherry, India, 1952. p.345译为Universal Godhead

[44] Ralph T.H. Griffith trans. Quality Paperback Book Club, New York, 1992.  http://www.hinduwebsite.com/sacredscripts/rig_veda_book_10.asp  ,我改正了很少的拼写失误。这一首诗颂隐晦难懂,各种译文有很不相同的解释。

[45] 不同的版本译法不同,这里从简,按照Sri Aurobindo, Hymns to the Mystic Fire, Pondicherry, India, 1952. p.525.翻译。

[46] 英译版注释:天和地。

[47] 英译版注释:太阳。

[48] 按照Wendy Doniger trtans. The Rig Vade: An Anthology,Penguin Books, 1981. P.117.翻译。

[49] 英译版注释:天和地。

[50] Sri Aurobindo, Hymns to the Mystic Fire, Pondicherry, India, 1952. p.525. Wendy Doniger trtans. The Rig Vade: An Anthology,Penguin Books, 1981. P.117.都有 “make him grow”.

[51] truth真理。Wendy Doniger trtans. The Rig Vade: An Anthology,Penguin Books, 1981. P.117.

[52] 英译本注释:七种火焰的姿势。

[53] 太阳。

[54] 按照Sri Aurobindo, Hymns to the Mystic Fire, Pondicherry, India, 1952. p.527.翻译。

[55] 众神以及各种存在之母。

[56] ㄚㄉㄧㄊㄧ的轮回重生。

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