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早期教会教义真伪辨:尼西亚会议前的上帝论,基督论
送交者: 追求永生 2013年07月27日07:05:11 于 [彩虹之约] 发送悄悄话

早期教会教义真伪辨:尼西亚会议前的上帝论,基督论

 

(本篇文章选自林慈信牧师神学课程-基督教教义发展史)

 

转贴者:在异端思想猖獗的时候,我们重温一下正统教会的正式立场和观点,是非常必要的。尤其是第和第四十个问题。我愿意在此重申我的看法:一个异端的出现,为首的改也难。而不改的结局就是不得救。而辨别异端最明显的标志,就是他们从动机上偏离基督教的信仰和教导,方法上一切为了他们的主张服务,目的上实现其否定基督教信仰,建立自己的异端信仰根基。而如果这种异端发展到从组织结构上与基督教分离,就是异教了,比如摩门教和耶证人会。李常受已经盖棺论定,我们不去说他了,老鱼在同一方向上到底走多远,是继续发扬光大,还是幡然悔悟,我们拭目以待。

 

第十课 早期教会教义真伪辨:尼西亚会议 (325 AD) 前的上帝论,基督论
TRUTH AND ERRORS IN THE EARLY CHURCH:THE DOCTRINE OF GOD AND THE DOCTRINE OF CHRIST BEFORE THE COUNCIL OF NICEA (325 A.D.)


F = False误  T = True正
诺斯底主义:上帝,人,与宇宙的真相
GNOSTICISM: GOD, MAN, AND THE UNIVERSE

1. 误:(诺斯底主义的世界观):宇宙不只一个神。最高的神是「纯神性」(纯存有)。他的神性放射(像太阳光放射)给不同的灵体;神与灵体造成「丰满」。
F (worldview of Gnosticism): There are many gods.  The highest good is pure divinity (pure Being).  His divine nature is emanated (like sun rays from the sun) from him to other spiritual beings. He + all other spiritual beings = pleroma.
正(爱任纽,特土良):宇宙只有一位神。他的神性不与任何其他活物分享:不与天使或人分享。不过,上帝造人是按照自己的形象造的:有些上帝的属性是可以传递的。人是有限的;在有限的範围里,起初人是圣洁的,公义的,智慧的等。这些可传递的属性都因为亚当犯罪堕落的缘故,受了污染。总的来说,上帝的属性是不放射的。
T (Irenaeus, Tertullian): There is only one God.  His divine nature is not shared with anyone, not angels, not humans.  Man, however, is created in God’s image – certain attributes are “communicable”, in the sense that man, on our finite level, was holy, righteous, wise, powerful, etc.; all these were marred by sin after Adam’s sin.  But God’s nature is not emanated to us.

2. 误:人里有神性,因此人性与神性只是量的不同,不是质的不同。
F:  There is (a spark of) divine nature in man.  Therefore man’s nature and God’s nature are different only in degree, not in essence.
正:创造主与被创造者之间有着绝对无限的区别。人性就不是神性。
T: There is an absolute, infinite distinction between the Creator and the creature!  Human nature simply IS NOT divine nature.

3. 误(诺斯底派的教会仪式):若要得救必须领受秘密仪式。
F (Gnosticism church rites): Salvation requires secret ceremonies.
正:要得救必须信靠基督,认罪悔改。洗礼是公开的仪式,教会作见证人。
T: Salvation requires faith and repentance.  Baptism is not secret, but a public testimony in the company of the whole church.

4. 误(诺斯底主义,一些宗教,部份基督徒):物质是邪恶的。
F (Gnosticism, some religions, some Christians):  Matter is evil.
正:物质被造的时候是好的。物质是好的;上帝要我们享受他所赐给我们的恩赐(如:食物),以他规定的方法来享用(要节制)。我们若认为物质是邪恶的话,要就是禁欲主义,不然就是无律法主义(放纵)。唯有正确的了解、使用、顺服上帝的律法,才能避免律法主义与非律法主义。
T:  Matter was created good.  Matter is good; we are to enjoy the good gifts God has given us (e.g. food), in the way God wants us to enjoy them (in moderation).  If we regard matter as evil, we either become ascetic or lawless.  Only if we properly understand, use and submit to the law of God, can we avoid legalism and lawlessness (antinomianism).

5. 误(诺斯底主义):有两个上帝;至善的神(无底的深渊),和创造主(旧约的神),后者是有激情,是次神。
F (Gnosticism): There are two gods: the highest good God (a bottomless abyss), and the Demiurge = Creator = God of the Old Testament.  The latter is a lesser god who has passions.
正:只有一位神,他是创造主,也是至善的救赎主。
T:  There is only one God – He is the Creator and the all-holy Redeemer.

基督(基督教)与哲学
CHRIST (CHRISTIANITY) AND PHILOSOPHY

6. 误:为了向知识分子传福音,就以哲学配合真理,什至以哲学解释真理,取代真理。(革利免,奥利金。)
F: Christians want to share the gospel with intellectuals; out of this motive, they often take philosophy and tag it onto the truth.  They use philosophy as a bridge.  They end up interpreting truth according to philosophy, or even substitute the truth with philosophy.  (Clement of Alexandria, Origen.)
正:哲学需要被真理批判,然后真理来改造哲学,救赎哲学。
T: Philosophy needs to be critiqued by the truth.  Then the truth (from Scripture) transforms, re-shapes philosophy, and in this way truth redeems philosophy.

7. 误:《圣经》与理性都是认识真理的泉源,途径。(革利免,奥利金。)
F: Reason and Scripture are both paths to understanding truth.  Reason and Scripture are two sources of truth.  (Clement of Alexandria, Origen.)
正:唯有上帝是真理的泉源。认识真理,必须靠上帝的启示,包括普遍启示与特殊(圣经)启示。人的理性已经堕落,需要启示来改造,光照,才能正确地理解真理。
T: God only is the source of truth.  To understand truth, man needs God’s revelation, including general revelation and special revelation (=Scripture).  Man’s reason is fallen, man needs God to re-make his reason, enlighten his reason.

8. 误:一些神学家坚守「信仰的准则」(《圣经》的权威),却受世俗哲学深深影响(奥利金,20世纪众多中、西「福音派」神学家)。
F: Some theologians submit to “the rule of faith” (the authority of the Bible), yet they are deeply influenced by secular philosophy (Origen, numerous so-called “evangelical” theologians in the 20th century, both western and Chinese).
正:坚持《圣经》的权威,就要从《圣经》的立场来批判哲学。
T: When a Christian confesses that he/she submits to the authority of the Bible, then secular philosophy must be critiqued.

9. 误:「道」将理性之光赐予人类,「道」的光帮助外邦人认识真理,为他们来到福音面前作踏脚石。(奥利金。)
F: The Logos imparts to men the light of reason.  The light of the Logos serves as a stepping stone for Gentiles to come to the fuller light of the gospel.  (Origen.)
正:「道」将理性赐人类,可是人类误用了理性,理性堕落了。现在的哲学并不是人原有理性的正确使用的结果,乃是误用的结果。因此人的理性需要上帝光照,理性需要悔改,来到上帝面前服在真理之下。理性须被上帝被改造(罗12:2:心意更新而变化)。
T: The Logos (Christ) indeed gave reason/mind to man at creation.  But man has misused his reason.  Reason has fallen.  Philosophy today is not the use of man’s original reason, but the misuse of it.  Therefore man’s reason needs a fresh illumination by God.  Man’s reason needs to repent, needs to come to God and submit under him, and be transformed by him (Rom. 12:2).

10. 误:神学家研究了哲学,如:新柏拉图主义(奥利金);然后写系统神学,把世俗的哲学思想写进基督教的系统神学。(如:今天中西众多神学家。)
F: Christians study philosophy (e.g. Origen studied neo-Platonism), then they write their systematic theology.  As they do so, they write ideas from secular philosophy into their theology.
正:研究哲学是为了护教,为了批判哲学。写系统神学时要黑白分明,批判世上的小学。
T: We study philosophy for the purpose of apologetic, so that we can critique philosophy.  When we write systematic theology, we must distinguish between truth and error, and critique secular philosophies.

11. 误:基督(上帝的儿子)= 「罗格斯」(道)= 希腊哲学的「道」。
(这个「道的教义」从殉道者游斯丁的时代开始。)
F: Christ (the Son of God) = the Logos = the “Logos” of Greek philosophy.
    (This “Logos doctrine” began with the period of  Justin Martyr.)
正:基督 = 自我见证的主,他就是真理本身。他不是一个人想出来的观念,如:「绝对真理」,希腊哲学的「道」,或中国《道德经》的「道」。
T:  Christ is the self-attesting Lord who is truth.  He is not a man-made concept like “absolute truth,” the Greek “Logos,” or the Chinese Taoist “Tao.”

12. 误:基督 / 上帝的儿子 = 神圣的「道」=「神圣的理性」= 非位格的属性、能力。正如人有理性和灵,上帝也有理性(道,子)和灵(圣灵)。
F:  Christ/the Son of God = the Divine Logos = “divine reason” = an impersonal attribute and power.  Just as man has a mind and spirit, so God has his reason (Logos) and his spirit (Holy Spirit).
正:基督,上帝的儿子 = 上帝,拥有所有圣父的属性,所有圣灵的属性。上帝的属性包括:他是主,永恒,无限,不变;智慧,权能,圣洁,公义,良善(爱,忍耐,恩典),真理。
T:  Christ/the Son = God, who has all the attributes of the Father and of the Spirit.  
Attributes of God include: Lordship; God is eternal, infinite, unchangeable; wise, powerful/sovereign, holy, just/righteous, good/gracious/loving, truth.
我们的上帝,就是《圣经》所宣讲的上帝,是无限的,又是有位格的。异教、非基督教的上帝,要就是无限但非位格的(如:希腊哲学的「形式 / 理念」,「道」),不然就是有限但有位格的(如希腊神话中的神只,中国民间宗教的神:关公,观音,黄大仙等)。
Our God, the God of the Bible is both infinite and personal.  Pagan/non-Christian gods are either infinite but impersonal (e.g. Greek “form,” “idea,” “Logos”), or finite and personal (the gods and goddess of Greek mythology and Chinese folk religion, e.g. Guan Gong, Guan Yin. Wong Tai Sin, etc.).

13. 误:基督(上帝的「道」)= 一切人间真理、智慧的来源, 因此:所有真理都是上帝的真理。哲学,心理学,文学的成果都是上帝的启示。
F:  Christ/the Logos of God = source of all enlightenment, source of all truth in men.  Therefore: All truth is God’s truth.  All philosophy, psychology, literature, etc. = God’s revelation.
正:基督(上帝的「道」)= 所有真理的来源。上帝创造人的时候赐人智慧,真理,圣洁与公义(创1:26-28,弗4:24)。可是人犯罪,从他原有的智慧,公义,圣洁堕落了。因此,现在人所追求的,若没有上帝的帮助,必然是愚拙(林前1:18-31),是世上的小学(西2:8)。人所能达到的 – 哲学,心理学,艺术,文学 – 都不是上帝的启示,不可能是上帝的启示,而是堕落的罪人对上帝普遍群启示的回应。基督并不为罪人的哲学与文化中对真理的扭曲和错误观念负责!
T: Christ/Logos = source of all truth.  Man was endowed with wisdom, truth, holiness and righteousness (Gen. 1:26-28, Eph. 4:24) when he was created; but man fell from his original wisdom, righteousness and holiness.  Therefore what man seeks, without God’s help, is ultimately foolishness (I Cor. 1:18-31).  Thus what man arrived at, in philosophy, psychology, art, literature, etc. is NOT God’s revelation.  It CANNOT possibly be God’s revelation.  Rather, these are  sinful, fallen man’s responses to God’s general revelation.  Christ is not responsible for the errors and twisted “truths” in fallen sinners’ philosophy and culture!

上帝的不可知性与可知性
THE INCOMPREHENSIBILITY OF GOD AND THE KNOWABILITY OF GOD
  
14. 误:上帝 = 完全不可知,无底的深渊。上帝是「全然的他者」。只有基督(「道)启示上帝。」(古今中外各样的非理性主义。)
F:  God = all unknowable, unfathomable; God is the “Wholly Other.”  Only Christ/Logos reveals God (All kinds of irrationalism, ancient to modern).
正:上帝是不可知的,若他不亲自启示自己给我们认识的话。可是,上帝是可知的,因为他计划了自我启示,也具体地透过(一)受造之物(大自然),(二)人地良心,(三)《圣经》自我启示了。因此上帝是可知的。人需要圣灵的光照才能认识《圣经》的真理。
T:  God is unknowable to us if he didn’t reveal himself to us.  But God decided to, and did, reveal himself through (a) nature, (b) our hearts, and (c) Scripture.  Therefore God is knowable through revelation.  The illumination of the Holy Spirit is needed to understand God’s revelation in Scripture.

上帝的不变与动性
GOD IS UNCHANGEABLE, GOD IS DYNAMIC

15. 误:上帝完全是动性的。(奥利金,当代的进程神学。)
F: God is always (eternally) in action. (Origen, today’s process theology.)
正:上帝是不变的。可是他计划了创造,掌管宇宙历史,救赎,审判,因此他不断执行他的计划,从这角度来说,「我父作工至今。」可是上帝的动力,作为并没有使他的本性,计划,与应许改变。
T: God does not change.  However God in eternity planned to (a) create the world, (b) rule over history/the universe, (c) save sinners, and (d) judge the world.  And he continues to implement his eternal plan.  Thus “My Father has worked till now.”   But God is not active in a sense that He changes his being, plan, or promises.

人的问题
MAN’S PREDICAMENT

16. 误:人性里的善恶,不是天赋的本性。是永恒里灵体的堕落因此有物质,有人的肉体。
F: Good and evil in man are not divine endowments.  Since some spiritual beings sinned and fell in eternity, therefore matter exists (was created), therefore man’s body exists.
正:人被造的时候是善的(包括身体,灵魂)。邪恶是因为人犯罪才存在在人间(罗5:12)。
Man was created good (body and soul).  Evil exists in man’s world because of man’s sin.  (Romans 5:12)

17. 误:人的问题,人为什么需要救恩 = 因为人是有限的,生命短暂。
F:  Man’s problem, man’s need for salvation = because man is finite, life is short.
正:人的问题,人为什么需要救恩 = 人背叛了上帝。人的问题是宗教性的,属灵的(与上帝的关系,背叛了上帝); 和道德性的(心的污秽,行为的不义)。「不虔,不义」(罗1:18-21)。
T: Man’s problem, man’s need for salvation = because man has rebelled against God.  Man’s problem is spiritual (his relationship with God, rebellion against God) and moral (his heart is polluted, and his conduct is unrighteous).  Man is “godless, unrighteous” (Rom. 1:18-21).

18. 误:原罪借着繁殖传到全人类。(传统天主教教义)
F: Original sin was transmitted to all mankind through procreation (traditional Roman Catholic teaching).
正:因为上帝对待亚当为人类的头,人类的代表,因此上帝把亚当的罪归算给全人类。结果,繁殖的后果是每一个生出来的婴孩都有上帝所归算的罪。
T: God treated Adam as the head and representative of all mankind.  Therefore God “charged” (reckoned, imputed) Adam’s sin/guilt on all mankind.  The result is: all babies born into this world have the imputed sin of Adam.

基督是上帝
CHRIST IS GOD

19. 误:有两个「道」。
F: There are two Logos’es.  (Origen.)
正:「道」,基督是一位。
T: There is only one Logos, only one Christ.

20. 误:有两个「道」:上帝里面的能力,和道成肉身的道(亚利乌)。
F:There are two Logos’es: (1) the “divine reason” or energy which is immanent in God (inside the Godhead); and (2) the incarnate Logos (Arius).
正:三位一体里的第二位(圣子)是一个位格;道成肉身并不改变这事实。
T:  The 2nd person of the Trinity is one person; the incarnation doesn’t alter this fact.

21. 误:基督(上帝的「道」,上帝的儿子)= 从属父上帝,本质上低于父(奥利金)。
F: Christ/the Logos/the Son of God = subordinate to the Father in being.  (Origen)
正:基督(上帝的儿子)= 与父上帝同等,同是上帝,同有尊荣,同是永恒,拥有所有上帝的属性。但是,在永恒救赎计划中,子甘愿顺服父.,因此,在救赎计划中,子从属父。
本质上的 (ontological) 三位一体:父,子,灵同等;父是上帝,子是上帝,灵是上帝。
救赎计划上 (Economy) 的三位一体:子,灵顺服父。
T: Christ/the Son of God = equal with the Father in deity, glory, eternity, and in all their attributes.
However in the plan of salvation, which the Father, Son and Spirit planned together in eternity, the Son decided to obey/submit to the Father.  Thus in the plan of salvation the Son is subordinate to the Father.
Ontological Trinity: the 3 persons are equally God.  The Father is God, the Son is God, the Spirit is God.
Economic Trinity: in the plan of salvation, the Son and Spirit submit to the Father.

22. 误:父生子不是必须的行动(necessary act),而是自由的行动 (free act)(奥利金)。
F: The Son’s eternal generation (the Father begetting the Son) is not a necessary act, but a free and sovereign act of the Father.  (Origen)
正:父生子是三位一体在永恒里必须的存在模式;是必须的,不是自由(主权)的决定、计划、行动。
T: The Father begetting the Son (eternal generation) is the very mode of existence and relationship of the 3 persons of the Trinity; it is necessary, not a free, sovereign plan/decision/act.

23. 错误:圣子是能变的(亚利乌)。
F: The Son is mutable (changeable) (Arius).
正:圣子与圣父,圣灵一样,是不变的神。
T: The Son, like the Father and the Spirit, is God.  He is unchangeable.

24. 误:「道」与耶稣(人)的灵魂在永恒里结合(奥利金)。
F: The Logos and the human soul of Jesus = united in eternity  (Origen).
正:「道」(耶稣基督的神性,三位一体的第二位)与耶稣基督的整个人性(身体,灵魂)在道成肉身的时联合:圣灵感孕马利亚的时候。
T:  The Logos/divine nature of Christ (the second person of the Trinity) united with the entire human nature of Christ (soul and body) at the Incarnation – when the Holy Spirit came upon the Virgin Mary.

25. 误:基督的神性与人性混合,他是混合品,两性并没有融合。
F: The divine nature and human nature of Christ was composite.  There is no union, no fusion between the two natures.
正:基督的神性与人性是完全地联合 (union)。
T: The divine and human nature of Christ united in perfect union.

基督是位格;子是父在永恒里生的
CHRIST IS PERSON; THE SON IS ETERNALLY BEGOTTEN OF FATHER
  
26. 误:基督与父同质,可是他不是位格。只有一个位格,就是父。他只是神圣的理性、能力(特土良,动力神格唯一说:撒摩撒他之保罗)。
F: Christ is of the same substance as the Father, but he is not a person. God is only one person, i.e., the Father.  He is divine power or divine reason (Tertullian, Dynamic Monarchianism: Paul of Samosata).
正:基督与父上帝同质。他是位格,正如父是位格。(不要把「位格」当作属性来看待!)子的生存形态与父不同(特土良)。
T: Christ is of the same substance as the Father.  But he is a person just like the Father is a person. But the Son has a mode of existence which is different from the Father’s (Tertullian).  (But don’t treat “person,” “personhood” as attributes.)

27. 误:「道」是神里的理性,到创造等时候才有位格。
F: Logos is impersonal divine reason; only becomes personal at creation.
正:「道」(子)在永恒里就是位格。
T: Logos (Son) is person in eternity, from eternity.

28. 误:子与父同质,可是只有父有全部的本质(特土良)。
F: The Son and the Father have the same substance, but only God the Father has all the substance (Tertullian)

正:子与父同质,子与父同有所有上帝的本性。
T: The Son and the Father are of the same substance.  Each has full divine nature (complete divine substance).

29. 误:父创造子(亚利乌)。子是父从无有创造出来的(亚利乌派,在尼西亚会议)。
F: The Son is created (Arius).  The Father created the Son. The Father created the Son out of nothing (Arians, at Council of Nicea).
正:子与父同创造宇宙。父生子,不是创造子。
T: The Son is Co-Creator with the father of the universe.  The Father begets the Son, the Father did not create the Son.

30. 误:父生子,是永恒里的作为(奥利金)。子有开始存在的时刻;有一段时间子并不存在(特土良)。
F: The Father begets the Son as an eternal act (Origen).  The Son has a beginning; there was a time when the Son/Logos was not (Tertullian).
正:父在永恒里生子;子没有开始存在的时刻。所有上帝所「计划」,所作的「作为」,都是三位一体一起作的「计划」与「作为」。
T: The Father begets the Son in eternity; the Son has no beginning.  Every “plan” and “act” of God, is the plan/act of the three persons in the Trinity together.

从来没有一刻,子不是(不存在)的。
There was never a moment when the Son was not.

人的被创造;基督的人性
CREATION OF MAN; CHRIST’S HUMAN NATURE

31. 错误:人是在永恒里被创造的。
F: Man was created in eternity (eternal creation).
正:人是在七日的第六日被创造的;人是在时间的开始时被造的。
F: Man was created on the 6th day of 7 days; man was created at the beginning of time.

32. 错误:基督不真正是人。基督吃东西,并不是他真正需要食物,而是要借此使人不能否认他的人性(革利免)。
F: Christ is not really a man.  Jesus ate food, not because he needed food, but simply to guard against a denial of his humanity (Clement of Alexandria.)
正:人不能否认基督的人性,因为他真正的是人。
T: We cannot deny the humanity of Christ, because Jesus Christ was/is fully human.

33. 误:「道」所充满的灵魂取了一个身体,这个身体被「道」穿入而神化 (divinized)(奥利金,动力神格唯一说的:撒摩撒他之保罗,后来基督新教中反对三位一体的教派)。
F: The soul, which was filled with the Logos, assumed a body.  This body, penetrated by the Logos, is divinized (becomes divine) by the Logos (Origen, Dynamic Monarchianism: Paul of Samosata, Socinians, Unitarians).
正:「道」(三位一体的第二位)取了人性(灵魂与身体)。结果不是人性被神化,乃是:道成肉身的耶稣基督是一个位格,一位耶稣基督:他是100%神,又是100%人。
T:  The Logos (The 2nd person of the Trinity) took on human nature (both body and soul).  The result is not that the human nature of Jesus Christ becomes divine.  Rather, Jesus Christ incarnate is ONE person, ONE Jesus Christ: he is 100% God, 100% man.

34. 误:耶稣被父认(收养)为儿子,因此被人尊敬为上帝的儿子(亚利乌)。
F: Jesus is recognized/adopted by the Father as Son, therefore men esteem him as God’s Son (Arius).
正:子在永恒里就是父的独生子。因道成肉身的基督成就了救赎大工,父上帝荣耀他,高举他,承认/宣称他为爱子。可是这宣称并不是基督成为上帝儿子的原因,而是圣子完成救赎大工的奖赏。
T: The Son was the only-begotten Son of the Father in eternity.  When the incarnate Christ finished his work of redemption, the Father chose to glorify him, exalt him, and “adopt”/declare him to be Son of God.  This declaration is not the reason why Jesus Christ is God’s Son; rather it is the reward for the Son’s completion of the work of redemption.

35. 误:耶稣(人)取了「功德」,如:圣洁,对上帝的意识 (士来马赫)等。因此他成为上帝的儿子,被称为上帝的儿子。
F: The man Jesus took on “meritoriousness” such as: holiness, consciousness of God (Friedrich Schleiermacher), etc.  Therefore he became the Son of God.
正:上帝的儿子从来在永恒里就是上帝的儿子,与父同等。他在道成肉身(圣灵感孕马利亚)的时候穿上了人性。
T: The Son of God was always God in eternity, and equal with the Father.  He took on human nature at the Incarnation, when the Holy Spirit came upon Virgin Mary.

道成肉身、神人二性的基督是救赎主
CHRIST, THE INCARNATE GOD-MAN, IS THE REDEEMER
  
36. 正:基督若是上帝,那么他来到世间,就是上帝来到世间。
T: If Christ is God, and only if He is God, in the full sense of the word, without qualification, God has entered humanity.  (Reinhold Seeberg.)

37. 误:基督只是教师,榜样,赐律法者。
F: Christ is only a teacher, an example, the lawgiver.
正:基督来更为罪舍命。他是救主。
T: Christ came mainly to die for sins as a substitute.  He is the Redeemer.

38. 错误:基督借着付赎价 (ransom) 给魔鬼来拯救我们:基督欺骗了魔鬼。
F: Christ rescued us by paying the ransom to the Devil.  Christ deceived the devil.
正:基督的舍命,满足了父上帝的公义和公义的要求,因此平息了父的忿怒( = 挽回祭的意义)。
T: Christ’s death satisfied the justice and just requirements of God the Father, thus removed his wrath.  (= propitiation)

39. 误:基督的神性,在耶稣被挂在十字架的时候,已经离开耶稣(人)。
F: Christ’s divine nature left the human Jesus when the man Jesus hung on the cross.
正:神人二性的耶稣基督在十字架上舍命。这是莫大的奥秘。
T: Jesus Christ, the God-man, died on the cross (this is a profound mystery).

40. 误:救赎就是神人合一:人能神化(爱任纽)。
F: Salvation involves the union of man and God. Man is deified (Irenaeus).
正:救赎是上帝与人和好。人不成为上帝!
而只有神自己:只有一位自己就是上帝的救主,才能使我们与上帝联合(啊阿他拿修)。
T: Salvation is God reconciling himself with man.  Man doesn’t become God!
And, only one who is himself God can unite us with God (Athanasius).

41. 误:基督的神性与人性混合,因此基督升天的时候,就等于成为无所不在 (unibiquitous)。(奥利金,马丁路德。)
F: The Divine and the Human in Christ was so co-mingled, that by his glorification, he became virtually ubiquitous.  (Origen, Martin Luther.)
正:基督的神性与人性完全的联合。基督的神性从来就是无所不在的。他升天的时候,是以神人二性一基督的身份升天的。今天,道成肉身的神人基督在天上。
T: Christ’s divine nature was perfectly  united with his human nature at the Incarnation.  Christ’s divine nature includes omnipresence; the 2nd person of the Trinity was always omnipresent.  When Christ ascended into heaven, he ascended as 100% God and 100% man.  The God-man, Incarnate Christ is in heaven today.

42. 误:耶稣基督的人性,在升天的时候消失了。
F: The human nature of Jesus Christ disappeared when he ascended into heaven.
正:今天在天上的是神人二性的耶稣基督。
T: Today Jesus Christ, in both his divine nature and human nature, is in heaven.
   
三位一体
THE TRINITY

43. 误:三位一体的三位,好像戏剧里的演员,角色,什至像面具。(形体上的神格唯一说,即:撒伯流主义;参:周联华,《信徒神学》。)
F: The three persons of the Godhead are like three actors/roles in a drama, or one actor wearing three masks.   (Modalism, or Modalistic Monarchianism, i.e., Sabellius; cf.: Rev. Chow Lien-hwa.)
正:三位一体的三位,每一位都是位格,有别与其他两位;每位都是上帝。
T: There are three distinct persons in the Trinity, but there is only one God.

44. 误:圣父道成肉身,被钉在十字架上。(圣父受苦说。)
F: The Father became Incarnate, hung on the cross.  (Patripassianism.)
正:圣子道成肉身。
T: The Son became Incarnate.

45. 误:上帝是三位一体,「一体」或「同质」就像泥土,金,银,木头一样。
F: God is three persons in one substance: substance is like clay, gold, silver, wood.
正:三个位格的「位格」,和一体的「体 / 质」,这两个观念都是广泛的。我们可以说:上帝是三个位格,同时是一个位格。不过很少人这样说,只有范泰尔 (Cornelius Van Til, 20世纪最伟大的护教家) 这样说。
T: “Person” (persona, hypostatis) and “substance” (ousia) mean “something” – God is “three of something” and “one of something.”  We can say God is three persons and one person.  Very few people say it this way, only Cornelius Van Til, the greatest apologist in the 20th century, says it this way.

《威敏斯特信仰告白》 第三章 论上帝与三位一体
Westminster Confession of Faith   Chapter 3 On God and the Trinity

三、上帝是独一的上帝,但他里面有三个位格,同属一个本质,权能相同,同样永恒,这三个位格就是:父、子、圣灵(三位一体的)上帝 (o)。父不属于、不受生于、也不出于任何其他来源;子在永恒里为父所生 (p);圣灵在永恒里由父和子而出 (q)。
3.  In the unity of the Godhead there are three persons, of one substance, power, and
eternity: God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit (o). The Father is of none, neither begotten nor proceeding; the e Son is eternally begotten of the Father (p) ; the Holy Spirit eternally proceeds from the Father and the Son (q) .  

第八章 论中保基督   Chapter 8  On Christ the Mediator
二、上帝的儿子,三位一体中的第二位,正是永恒的上帝, 与父同质、同等;当日期满足的时候,就取了人性 (k),并人性一切基本的性质、共通的软弱,只是无罪 (l)﹔借着圣灵的大能,在童贞女马利亚的腹中成孕,有她的本质(m)。所以在耶稣里面是两个完整的、无缺的,且相异的性质(就是神性与人性),不可分地结合于一位格里,没有转化、合成、混合 (n)。这个位格是真正的上帝,也是真正的人,却是一位基督,神人之间的惟一的中保 (o)。
2.  The Son of God, the second person in the Trinity, being truly and eternally God,
of one substance and equal with the Father, did, when the fullness of time had come, take upon Him man’s nature (k), with all its essential properties and common frailties, yet without sin (l).  He was conceived by the power of the Holy Spirit in the womb of the virgin Mary and of her substance (m).  In this way two whole natures, the divine and the human, perfect and distinct, were inseparably joined together in one person without being changed, mixed, or confused (n).  This person is truly God and truly man, yet one Christ, the only mediator between God and man (Romans 1:3-4).

The Nicene Creed

  I believe in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible.
  And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God, begotten of the Father before all worlds; God of God, Light of Light, very God of very God; begotten, not made, being of one substance with the Father, by whom all things were made.
  Who, for us men for our salvation, came down from heaven, and was incarnate by the Holy Spirit of the virgin Mary, and was made man; and was crucified also for us under Pontius Pilate; He suffered and was buried; and the third day He rose again, according to the Scriptures; and ascended into heaven, and sits on the right hand of the Father; and He shall come again, with glory, to judge the quick and the dead; whose kingdom shall have no end.
  And I believe in the Holy Ghost, the Lord and Giver of Life; who proceeds from the Father and the Son; who with the Father and the Son together is worshipped and glorified; who spoke by the prophets.
  And I believe one holy catholic and apostolic Church. I acknowledge one baptism for the remission of sins; and I look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come. Amen.

The Definition of the Council of Chalcedon (451 AD)
  Therefore, following the holy fathers, we all with one accord teach men to acknowledge one and the same Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, at once complete in Godhead and complete in manhood, truly God and truly man, consisting also of a reasonable soul and body; of one substance with the Father as regards his Godhead, and at the same time of one substance with us as regards his manhood; like us in all respects, apart from sin; as regards his Godhead, begotten of the Father before the ages, but yet as regards his manhood begotten, for us men and for our salvation, of Mary the Virgin, the God-bearer; one and the same Christ, Son, Lord, Only-begotten, recognized in two natures, without confusion, without change, without division, without separation; the distinction of natures being in no way annulled by the union, but rather the characteristics of each nature being preserved and coming together to form one person and subsistence, not as parted or separated into two persons, but one and the same Son and Only-begotten God the Word, Lord Jesus Christ; even as the prophets from earliest times spoke of him, and our Lord Jesus Christ himself taught us, and the creed of the fathers has handed down to us.

 

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