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啜,谁是民科读读下面就知道了☝️
送交者: 从上而生 2019月08月17日12:30:04 于 [彩虹之约] 发送悄悄话
回  答: 救人的不是教义 句号 - 提前4:16中的“救”非指“救恩” nngzh 于 2019-08-17 12:06:58

The promised result, σώσεις …, is twofold, “both yourself and your hearers.” The operative verb is σῴζω, which has as a general meaning, “save, keep from harm, preserve, rescue” (BAGD). Although there are those who argue that the salvation is from theological error, i.e., salvation in the sense of preservation (Bengel, Gromacki, Vine, Wuest), most commentators take σώσεις soteriologically and eschatologically (Alford, Bernard, Brox, Bürki, Calvin, Earle, Ellicott, Fairbairn, Gealy, Guthrie, Hendriksen, Hiebert, Huther, Kelly, Kent, Lenski, Moellering, Robertson, Scott, Simpson, van Oosterzee, and White; also J. Schneider, NIDNTT III, 215; W. Foerster, TDNT VII, 995). The other occurrences of σῴζω in the PE (1 Tim. 1:15; 2:4, 15; Tit. 3:5; 2 Tim. 1:9; 4:18) are clearly soteriological in orientation. It is true that διδασκαλία does deliver from error and bring to truth, but that seems to be included in the ultimate goal expressed in σῴζω (cf. 2:4; so also van Oosterzee). The salvation of the hearers is elsewhere depicted by Paul as the central goal of the ministry (cf. especially 1 Cor. 15:1, 2; 9:22; 2 Tim. 2:10; 4:5), and it is that hope in the living God who is the Savior of all believers that Paul has presented as the centerpiece of encouragement for Timothy in this section.

That a human being, here Timothy, is the subject of σῴζω is a phenomenon found elsewhere in Paul (Rom. 11:14; 1 Cor. 9:22; 7:16a, b), in James (5:20), in Jude (23), and with Jesus in the Synoptic Gospels (Mk. 8:35b par. Lk. 9:24b). Thus we see that the NT speaks of human agents in addition to the ultimate and absolute source, God himself (cf. the very helpful comments of Calvin). Jesus speaks of a man saving his life (Mk. 8:35 par. Lk. 9:24: σώσει αὐτήν= τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ, equivalent to σεαυτόν here) by the decisive act of “losing his life” for Jesus and the gospel, i.e., the surrender of saving faith (here by the perseverance that marks true faith; cf. again Col. 1:23 especially, and also 1 Cor. 9:24–27).

τοὺς ἀκουόντάς σου, “your hearers,” is the natural way to refer to those who are the recipients of the gospel, since it was communicated orally. To Timothy’s hearers the promise is extended with the same requirement for them as for Timothy, perseverance (ἐπίμενε αὐτοῖς). Timothy’s διδασκαλία, like Paul’s, is to encourage such perseverance (Col. 1:23; 1 Cor. 15:1, 2) for those whose ears are open to hear and thus can be truly called hearers (cf. 2 Tim. 4:1–5). Lenski summarizes well when he says that God alone saves (v. 10), yet he saves by means, “and it is thus that one who uses and applies these means can very properly be said to save both himself and others.”

 Knight, G. W. (1992). The Pastoral Epistles: a commentary on the Greek text (pp. 211–213). Grand Rapids, MI; Carlisle, England: W.B. Eerdmans; Paternoster Press.


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