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什么叫“懂科学”
送交者: nile 2010年11月10日18:38:28 于 [教育学术] 发送悄悄话

“你懂不懂科学?”。这可以成为一个问题吗?如果你懂科学,你懂不懂文化?懂不懂语言?“科学”是一个概念。既然是概念就有内涵和外延。科学的内涵说明它区别于其他事物的基本特征或属性,也就是科学的定义。科学的外延是具有这一属性的一切事物。没有人不能理解科学的内涵,同时也没有人能够理解科学的全部外延。所以问出这问题的人一定是白痴。

这人就是痞夫(pifu01),。“痞夫”除了问这个白痴问题,还问了一个有点水平的问题:谁证实过肖传国的结果。不过“痞夫”紧接着问“你?”又把他那点水平倒进了阴沟。

肖的结果当然有人重复过,如果他有基本的文献检索能力应该容易就知道这个事实。nile给他出示了一篇综述后面的参考文献。稍有一点科学素质的人应该知道综述都是对某个领域里多位作者的工作的论述。其中必然有这项工作的背景,现状和展望。以下就是这篇综述的作者引述的Ruggeri M等用前角神经转移控制膀胱的工作。

The ability to repair immediately transected ventral roots (VRs) was tested in 10 dogs [10]. The subjects were tested   at 78 and 373 days postoperatively for bladder contraction induced by functional electrical stimulation. At 78 days,  no increase in bladder pressure could be obtained via electrical stimulation. However, at 373 days, five of eight  nimals had a functional electrical stimulation-induced bladder contraction. The average increase in bladder pressure was 9.0±3.3 cm H20. Three weeks before the animals were euthanized, four injections of 4% fluorogold were made lateral to each ureteral orifice. Lumbar and sacral spinal cord segments were obtained postmortem and used to  measure the quantity of fluorogold retrogradely labeled motor neurons. All 10 experimental animals were found to have fluorogold-labeled neuronal cell bodies in the lateral ventral horns and in the zona intermedia of upper sacral spinal segments. This confirmed that despite variability in functional outcomes, there is regrowth of motor axons to the bladder [10]. This theory was further tested by immediately grafting the genitofemoral (GF) nerve, intercostal nerves, or coccygeal (CG) roots to transected bladder sacral roots [11]. Of the four GF nerve transfers, only one  could generate bladder pressure with electrical stimulation. This occurred on postoperative day 96. For the three CG root nerve transfers, one generated a pressure on postoperative day 178. No statistical significance was noted  between the three groups (sham, GF, CG) with regard to total number of fluorogold-labeled cells. One interesting point was that the fluorogold-labeled neurons contributed to different areas of the spinal cord. The shamoperated

animals had a significant number in the sacral cord region, the CG animals in the coccygeal cord segments, and the GF had a larger number in the lumbar cord. In a similar but larger study of 10 animals, 3 GF were able to generate a bladder pressure with electrical stimulation [12].

10. Ruggeri M, Braverman A, DAndrea L, et al.: Functional reinnervation of the canine bladder after spinal root transaction and immediate end-on-end repair. J Neurotrauma 2006, 23:11251136.

11. Ruggeri M, Braverman A, DAndrea L, et al.: Functionalreinnervation of the canine bladder after spinal root transaction and immediate somatic nerve transfer. J Neurotrauma 2008, 25:214224.

12. Ruggeri M, Braverman A, DAndrea L, et al.: Functional reinnervation of the canine bladder after spinal root transaction and genitofemoral nerve transfer at one and three months after denervation.J Neurotraum 2008, 25:401409.

还有中国作者得出了与肖传国同样的结果:

Reconstructed bladder innervation below the level of spinal cord injury: the knee-tendon to bladder artificial reflex arc

XY Zheng, CL Hou, HB Zhong, RS Xu… - The Journal of Spinal …, 2009 - ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

Bypassing Spinal Cord Injury: Surgical Reconstruction of Afferent and Efferent Pathways to the Urinary Bladder after Conus Medullaris Injury in a Rat Model

H Lin, C Hou… - Journal of reconstructive microsurgery, 2008 - thieme-connect.com


如果“痞夫”无法理解任何一个学科的发展都需要建立在前人的工作积累基础上,他问nile“你懂不懂科学”也就不难理解了。

另外,本人不屑于与这个操着半通不通鸟语的痞夫在中文论坛上交流。如果他需要提高英文水平,建议他好好去上个学。

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  I服了U,U前无古人,玩好  /无内容 - pifu01 11/10/10 (135)
    如果你就是来找点乐子的,恕某不能奉陪。  /无内容 - nile 11/10/10 (138)
          you are another chinaman  /无内容 - pifu01 11/11/10 (130)
            you, chinaman  /无内容 - pifu01 11/11/10 (153)
  这里还有一篇中文作者的工作: - nile 11/10/10 (128)
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