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送交者: 落英缤纷 2011年12月09日15:57:53 于 [史地人物] 发送悄悄话

Yeltsin signed the Belavezha accords, the papers that dissolved the Soviet Union on Dec. 8, 1991. The communist empire ended that day, with no air-raid sirens, no mushroom clouds, none of the nightmare imagery that had haunted two generations of Americans and Soviets. There were just six men--the leaders of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus--holed up in a hunting lodge in an ancient forest near the Polish border, declaring their secession and toasting the death of the Soviet Union.




The willful disbanding of the Soviet empire was supposed to ring in a new era of cooperation, especially between the world's superpowers, the U.S. and Russia. One of the first calls Yeltsin made after the signing, even before they called Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev, was to U.S. President George H.W. Bush. When the breakup was finalized a few weeks later and Gorbachev turned power over to Yeltsin, Bush went on television to proclaim the event "a victory for democracy and freedom." It was, in effect, the last war America won. The hope was that Russians had won it too.




But that victory was short-lived. Egged on by American free-market economists, the reformers broke up state holdings and auctioned them off for pennies on the dollar. Millions of Russians lost their jobs as hyperinflation wiped out their savings. Russia's GDP fell by 13% in 1991, 19% in 1992 and 12% in 1993, according to the International Monetary Fund. The country sank into a brutal depression. Free elections in 1993 packed the parliament with communists and nationalists who declared war against Yeltsin's policies; earlier that year, lawmakers had voted for Yeltsin's impeachment, and the would-be democrat ordered tanks to fire on the parliament building. Hundreds were killed, and by the time the smoke cleared, the country had lost faith in democracy.




The glow of freedom in those first post-Soviet years--the liberty to travel wherever, read whatever, vote for whomever--faded quickly. Russians' ballots, they learned, did not slow the slide into disorder or hold leaders to account. They got the worst of democracy, all uncertainty and no accountability. Fatalism, never far from the Russian psyche, set in. Better to focus on scraping out a living for yourself than on building a better society.




Worse yet, Russians feel that the West abandoned them in their time of need; in the minds of many, the bardak of the '90s was America's fault. The U.S.-led economic reforms were a disaster, and there's an argument to be made that the U.S. exploited the weakness of the new Russia by circumventing Moscow to gain quick influence in oil-rich former Soviet republics in Central Asia. "We expected they would pursue their interests," Burbulis says, "but we never thought they would be so blunt about it." There was never a Marshall Plan for Russia, in part because there was a strong undercurrent of schadenfreude in Washington about its former enemy's struggles.



    你这哈佛叫兽还会编普世语录。民主4年只一天,剩下全是专制。  /无内容 - 幽默专栏 12/09/11 (153)
      洗洗屁类 (ccplie)还是个跟屁虫  /无内容 - hebeiman 12/10/11 (160)
        fighted ccp dog!  /无内容 - ccplie 12/10/11 (143)
          fighted?fight的过去时是这样吗?查一下你在 - 落英缤纷 12/10/11 (181)
            你可别误导他,说不定他不懂搞错真往adult store跑。  /无内容 - 幽默专栏 12/11/11 (148)
              他会搞错?他很熟悉那些地方,否则怎么成天骂人爹娘呢?  /无内容 - 落英缤纷 12/11/11 (157)
            U are a dog of USSR - ccplie 12/10/11 (145)
        you mom ccp is USSR跟屁虫  /无内容 - ccplie 12/10/11 (156)
  1999年《中俄全面勘分边界条约》 - ccplie 12/09/11 (257)
  卢布的教训 - ccplie 12/09/11 (180)
  俄国共产教训 - ccplie 12/09/11 (159)
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